STATE AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT & EXTENSION TRAINING INSTITUTE
A State level Training Institute of Jharkhand
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Agro Climatic Condition:
In General, the plateau region of Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas is characterized by humid and sub humid tropical monsoon in sub zone IV, sub humid to subtropical in sub zone V and humid to sub-tropical in sub zone VI, undulating Plateau, hills and mountains, non existence of perennial rivers, initially high forest cover, which is depleting fast due to mineral and industrial exploitation and encroachment, concentration of tribal population in many areas with a life style geared to forest ecology, pockets with chronic drought conditions, erratic rainfall, low ground water level, high soil erosion, insufficient agricultural dairy and fishery activities, rising agricultural unemployment and acute poverty. Important characteristics of the three sub zones are:
Sub Zone IV:
Sub Zone V:
Sub Zone VI:
Important land use pattern characteristics of the three sub zones in Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas of Plateau region with respect of area, population, crop & irrigation are presented below
Area, Population, Cultivated area and forests in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand
Source of irrigation in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand
Out of 79lakh hectares
geographical area of Jharkhand state, the net cultivated area is around 22 lakh
hectares. Area under forest is 29 percent (23 lakh hectares). The state comes
under agro climatic zone 7 and in zone 12 & 13 as per agro-ecological
characterization of the country. The region mainly comprises soils developed on
granite gneiss (32.6%) and granite schists (14.2 %). There is practically no
problem of soil salinity or flooding. Soil acidity problem (ph < 5.5) is
acute in 4 lakh hectare of cultivated area. The region has a major problem of
slight (52 %) to moderate (36 %) soil erosion since about 43 % soils are located
on very gentle slopes (1 to 3% and 31 % soils on gentle slopes (3 to 8%).
The land surface being uneven are subject to sheet and gully erosion, causing loss of soil and plant nutrients. Out of 79lakh hectares geographical area of the region, about 23 lakh hectares are subjected to severe erosion every year. But, erosion, moderate to severe taken together affect about 30 lakh hectares which is about 40 per cent of the geographical area. Thus, checking soil erosion by adopting soil conservation measures should be the most important step to check land degradation
About 9 percent of the area in the state is irrigated. The state receives rainfall 1200-1600 mm/annum at both the monsoon. Precipitation is rather variable. Winter season precipitation is meagre and highly variable. There are no an average 130 rainy days in a year and 75 days, rainfall is below 2.5 mm. On 55 rainy days evaporation level is more than 2.5 mm per day. As per estimate out of the average annual precipitation of 10 million hectare meter in the state about 20 % is lost in the atmosphere, 50 % flow as surface runoff and balance 30% soaks into the ground as soil moisture and ground water.
climate of the region is influenced by geographic location and physical
features. Located on an elevation of 300 to 610 meter above sea level, the
climate ranges from dry semi humid to humid semi-arid types.
The annual rainfall in the plateau and sub-plateau region is 1400 mm, on an average of which 82.1 % is received during the periods June to September and the rest 17.9 % in remaining months
The climate of the Jharkhand ranges from dry semi-humid to humid semi-arid type. Monthly rainfall pattern (current, 10 years and 44 years) at Kanke, Ranchi is presented below. The average rainfall distribution at Kanke for current year, 10,34 and 44 year with respect to crop season wise and also of sub zone wise are given below.
season wise distribution and pattern of rainfall (mm) at Kanke