A State level Training Institute of Jharkhand

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Agriculture Situation of the State 

Land Use Pattern Soil Resources   Water Resources 
Climatic Resources  Bio diversity Forest Resources
Animal Resources  Food grain Production   Jharkhand State Profile

Agro Climatic Condition:

   In General, the plateau region of Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas is characterized by humid and sub humid tropical monsoon in sub zone IV, sub humid to subtropical in sub zone V and humid to sub-tropical in sub zone VI, undulating Plateau, hills and mountains, non existence of perennial rivers, initially high forest cover, which is depleting fast due to mineral and industrial exploitation and encroachment, concentration of tribal population in many areas with a life style geared to forest ecology, pockets with chronic drought conditions, erratic rainfall, low ground water level, high soil erosion, insufficient agricultural dairy and fishery activities, rising agricultural unemployment and acute poverty. Important characteristics of the three sub zones are:

Sub Zone IV:

  1. Low water relentive capacity of the soil particularly that of uplands.

  2. Late arrival and early cessation of monsoon and erratic and uneven distribution of rainfall.

  3. Lack of safe disposal of runoff water during monsoon and water storage and moisture conservation practices for raising Rabi crops.

  4. Drying of tanks and wells by February results in no Rabi crop production.

Sub Zone V:

  1.  Late arrival and early cessation of monsoon.

  2. Erratic /uneven distribution of rainfall.

  3. Low water retentive capacity of soils.

  4. Lack of soil and water conservation practices

Sub Zone VI:

  1. Uneven distribution of rainfall.

  2. Low water holding capacity.

  3. Eroded soils.

  4. Poor soil fertility.                                                                                                                                    Top

Land Use Pattern:

Important land use pattern characteristics of the three sub zones in Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas of Plateau region with respect of area, population, crop & irrigation are presented below

Area, Population, Cultivated area and forests in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand

Sub Zone Sub Region Total Geographical area (m ha) Population (million) Net cultivated area Forest (%)
IV Central North Eastern Plateau 4.1 12.3 55.0 13.0
V Western Plateau 2.5 6.0 24.0 33.0
VI South Eastern Plateau 1.3 3.5 31.6 24.0

Source of irrigation in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand

ACR Sub Zone Total Irrigated area (ha) Irrigated area as % of total cropped area Source of Irrigation (ha)
Canal Tank Tube well Well & others
Zone IV 11237 6.58 1888 3433 534 5516
Zone V 21956 9.65 3732 801 3228 14381
Zone VI 15510 4.58 10211 2156 409 2733

Soil Resources:                                                                                             

Out of 79lakh hectares geographical area of Jharkhand state, the net cultivated area is around 22 lakh hectares. Area under forest is 29 percent (23 lakh hectares). The state comes under agro climatic zone 7 and in zone 12 & 13 as per agro-ecological characterization of the country. The region mainly comprises soils developed on granite gneiss (32.6%) and granite schists (14.2 %). There is practically no problem of soil salinity or flooding. Soil acidity problem (ph < 5.5) is acute in 4 lakh hectare of cultivated area. The region has a major problem of slight (52 %) to moderate (36 %) soil erosion since about 43 % soils are located on very gentle slopes (1 to 3% and 31 % soils on gentle slopes (3 to 8%). 

          The land surface being uneven are subject to sheet and gully erosion, causing loss of soil and plant nutrients. Out of 79lakh hectares geographical area of the region, about 23 lakh hectares are subjected to severe erosion every year. But, erosion, moderate to severe taken together affect about 30 lakh hectares which is about 40 per cent of the geographical area. Thus, checking soil erosion by adopting soil conservation measures should be the most important step to check land degradation

Water Resources:                                                                                                                                                                                            Top

About 9 percent of the area in the state is irrigated. The state receives rainfall 1200-1600 mm/annum at both the monsoon. Precipitation is rather variable. Winter season precipitation is meagre and highly variable. There are no an average 130 rainy days in a year and 75 days, rainfall is below 2.5 mm. On 55 rainy days evaporation level is more than 2.5 mm per day. As per estimate out of the average annual precipitation of 10 million hectare meter in the state about 20 % is lost in the atmosphere, 50 % flow as surface runoff and balance 30% soaks into the ground as soil moisture and ground water.

Climatic Resources:

The climate of the region is influenced by geographic location and physical features. Located on an elevation of 300 to 610 meter above sea level, the climate ranges from dry semi humid to humid semi-arid types.

The annual rainfall in the plateau and sub-plateau region is 1400 mm, on an average of which 82.1 % is received during the periods June to September and the rest 17.9 % in remaining months

The climate of the Jharkhand ranges from dry semi-humid to humid semi-arid type. Monthly rainfall pattern (current, 10 years and 44 years) at Kanke, Ranchi is presented below. The average rainfall distribution at Kanke for current year, 10,34 and 44 year with respect to crop season wise and also of sub zone wise are given below.

Crop season wise distribution and pattern of rainfall (mm) at Kanke                                            Top

Crop Season

Current Year


10 Years (mean)


34 years (mean)


44 years (mean)