STATE AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT & EXTENSION TRAINING INSTITUTE

SAMETI, JHARKHAND

A State level Training Institute of Jharkhand

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Agriculture Situation of the State 

Land Use Pattern Soil Resources   Water Resources 
Climatic Resources  Bio diversity Forest Resources
Animal Resources  Food grain Production   Jharkhand State Profile

Agro Climatic Condition:

   In General, the plateau region of Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas is characterized by humid and sub humid tropical monsoon in sub zone IV, sub humid to subtropical in sub zone V and humid to sub-tropical in sub zone VI, undulating Plateau, hills and mountains, non existence of perennial rivers, initially high forest cover, which is depleting fast due to mineral and industrial exploitation and encroachment, concentration of tribal population in many areas with a life style geared to forest ecology, pockets with chronic drought conditions, erratic rainfall, low ground water level, high soil erosion, insufficient agricultural dairy and fishery activities, rising agricultural unemployment and acute poverty. Important characteristics of the three sub zones are:

Sub Zone IV:

  1. Low water relentive capacity of the soil particularly that of uplands.

  2. Late arrival and early cessation of monsoon and erratic and uneven distribution of rainfall.

  3. Lack of safe disposal of runoff water during monsoon and water storage and moisture conservation practices for raising Rabi crops.

  4. Drying of tanks and wells by February results in no Rabi crop production.

Sub Zone V:

  1.  Late arrival and early cessation of monsoon.

  2. Erratic /uneven distribution of rainfall.

  3. Low water retentive capacity of soils.

  4. Lack of soil and water conservation practices

Sub Zone VI:

  1. Uneven distribution of rainfall.

  2. Low water holding capacity.

  3. Eroded soils.

  4. Poor soil fertility.                                                                                                                                    Top

Land Use Pattern:

Important land use pattern characteristics of the three sub zones in Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas of Plateau region with respect of area, population, crop & irrigation are presented below

Area, Population, Cultivated area and forests in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand

Sub Zone Sub Region Total Geographical area (m ha) Population (million) Net cultivated area Forest (%)
IV Central North Eastern Plateau 4.1 12.3 55.0 13.0
V Western Plateau 2.5 6.0 24.0 33.0
VI South Eastern Plateau 1.3 3.5 31.6 24.0

Source of irrigation in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand

ACR Sub Zone Total Irrigated area (ha) Irrigated area as % of total cropped area Source of Irrigation (ha)
Canal Tank Tube well Well & others
Zone IV 11237 6.58 1888 3433 534 5516
Zone V 21956 9.65 3732 801 3228 14381
Zone VI 15510 4.58 10211 2156 409 2733

Soil Resources:                                                                                             

Out of 79lakh hectares geographical area of Jharkhand state, the net cultivated area is around 22 lakh hectares. Area under forest is 29 percent (23 lakh hectares). The state comes under agro climatic zone 7 and in zone 12 & 13 as per agro-ecological characterization of the country. The region mainly comprises soils developed on granite gneiss (32.6%) and granite schists (14.2 %). There is practically no problem of soil salinity or flooding. Soil acidity problem (ph < 5.5) is acute in 4 lakh hectare of cultivated area. The region has a major problem of slight (52 %) to moderate (36 %) soil erosion since about 43 % soils are located on very gentle slopes (1 to 3% and 31 % soils on gentle slopes (3 to 8%). 

          The land surface being uneven are subject to sheet and gully erosion, causing loss of soil and plant nutrients. Out of 79lakh hectares geographical area of the region, about 23 lakh hectares are subjected to severe erosion every year. But, erosion, moderate to severe taken together affect about 30 lakh hectares which is about 40 per cent of the geographical area. Thus, checking soil erosion by adopting soil conservation measures should be the most important step to check land degradation

Water Resources:                                                                                                                                                                                            Top

About 9 percent of the area in the state is irrigated. The state receives rainfall 1200-1600 mm/annum at both the monsoon. Precipitation is rather variable. Winter season precipitation is meagre and highly variable. There are no an average 130 rainy days in a year and 75 days, rainfall is below 2.5 mm. On 55 rainy days evaporation level is more than 2.5 mm per day. As per estimate out of the average annual precipitation of 10 million hectare meter in the state about 20 % is lost in the atmosphere, 50 % flow as surface runoff and balance 30% soaks into the ground as soil moisture and ground water.

Climatic Resources:

The climate of the region is influenced by geographic location and physical features. Located on an elevation of 300 to 610 meter above sea level, the climate ranges from dry semi humid to humid semi-arid types.

The annual rainfall in the plateau and sub-plateau region is 1400 mm, on an average of which 82.1 % is received during the periods June to September and the rest 17.9 % in remaining months

The climate of the Jharkhand ranges from dry semi-humid to humid semi-arid type. Monthly rainfall pattern (current, 10 years and 44 years) at Kanke, Ranchi is presented below. The average rainfall distribution at Kanke for current year, 10,34 and 44 year with respect to crop season wise and also of sub zone wise are given below.

Crop season wise distribution and pattern of rainfall (mm) at Kanke                                            Top

Crop Season

Current Year

(2001-02)

10 Years (mean)

(1991-2000)

34 years (mean)

(1957-1990)

44 years (mean)

(1957-2000)

Kharif

(June –October)

1093.0

1424.2

1227.6

1278.7

Rabi

(October –March0

211.8

178.4

167.8

175.1

Zaid

(March-Jun))

662.8

361.4

346.6

329.7

 Distribution pattern of rainfall sub zone wise of Jharkhand

Sub-zones

Annual rainfall (mm)

Kharif (June to October)

Sub zone (iv)

1320.0

(80.82)*

Sub zone (v)

1246.0

(70.00)

Sub zone (vi)

1400.0

(80.85)

Biodiversity:                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Biodiversity refers to variation and abundance of species in their living environment. Tribal population (27.6 %) dominate the state and are scattered in small and large villages close or inside the forest. The tribal people are solely dependent on forest for firewood, fodder, food and timber.

The vast list of plant species found in Jharkhand state is diminishing at a fast rate due to deforestation. Over grazing by livestock and loss of wetland due to siltation and exploitation of forest are putting pressure on plant biodiversity.

Forest Resources:

Out of about 23 lakh hectares forest area, the maximum forest cover is in Palamau and minimum in Sahebganj. More than 1/3rd area is covered with forest in Singhbhum east, Palamau, Garwha, Hazaribagh, Chatra, Koderma, Girdih and Bokaro districts.

Animal Resources:

Animal Husbandry has a good prospect in the state due to availability of vast streaches of grazing land and limited agricultural activities. The livestock population in Jharkhand reveals improvement in cattle, goat and pig during the last 10 years. The live stock production is a family operation and is an important source of employment generation and supplementary income.

Food Grain Production:                                                                                                                                                                                Top

Analysis shows the requirement of 46 lakh tonnes of food grains for a population of 26 million against the current production of 22 lakh tonnes. The short fall in food grain production is highest in sub zone IV (Central north eastern plateau) followed by that in western and southeastern plateau zone.

Area and average productivity of important crops in Jharkhand:

Crop

Agro- Climatic Zone

IV

V

VI

Area (000 ha)

Productivity          (q ha-1)

Area (000 ha)

Productivity          (q ha-1)

Area (000 ha)

Productivity          (q ha-1)

Rice

836

11.28

328.5

6.9

330

4.5

Ragi

43.7

7.66

--

--

1.0

3.6

Maize

117

13.11

41.6

8.0

6.7

8.1

Wheat

92

16.00

14.0

6.5

1.9

6.6

Red Gram

8.6

11.41

17.0

7.5

0.6

7.4

Niger

12.3

4.0

19.3

3.7

2.0

2.7

Food grain production target for jharkhand:

Sub Zone

Present Level

Desired Level

Cropped Area  ( M ha-1)

Food grain Production

 ( M tonnes)

Productivity

( t/ha)

Food grain requirement

( M tonnes)

Required Productivity  ( t ha-1)

IV

1.04

1.13

1.09

2.24

2.15

V

0.77

0.62

0.80

1.09

1.40

VI

0.39

0.35

0.90

0.64

1.64

Total

2.20

2.10

0.93

3.97

1.73

Jharkhand State - Profile                                                                                                                                                                              Top

 

    

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Coverage, Production and Productivity of Different crops of Jharkhand 

Paddy 

Year  Coverage in 000 ha Production in 000 tones Productivity kg /ha
2007-08 1643.782 3326.407 2023
2008-09 1670.330 3400.187 2035
2009-10 981.693 1518.364 1546
2010-11 720.317 1110.006 1541
2011-12 1693.796 5614.931 3315
2012-13      

Maize                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Top

Year  Coverage in 000 ha Production in 000 tones Productivity kg /ha
2007-08 237.41 358.245 1621
2008-09 216.066 304.002 1407
2009-10 189.999 217.458 1332
2010-11 215.399 261.715 1215
2011-12 255.069 408.889 1603
2012-13      

Pulses  

Year  Coverage in 000 ha Production in 000 tones Productivity kg /ha
2007-08 393.668 295.181 750
2008-09 387.536 280.785 724
2009-10 301.767 219.729 728
2010-11 405.275 312.422 771
2011-12 538.784 492.25 914
2012-13      

Top

Oilseeds  

Year  Coverage in 000 ha Production in 000 tones Productivity kg /ha
2007-08 124.346 68.881 554
2008-09 130.522 73.306  
2009-10 141.454 78.875 557
2010-11 182.013 113.66 624
2011-12 264.831 174.493 659
2012-13